In Nigeria, residency training is done in accordance with the academic curriculum for postgraduate training in Paediatric Surgery for the National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria(NPMCN) and the West African College of Surgeons(WACS).

Residents are trained for a successful outcome in the Part II postgraduate examinations of NPMCN holding in May and November and the Part II postgraduate examinations of WACS holding in April and October every year.

QUALIFICATIONS FOR ACCEPTANCE INTO RESIDENCY TRAINING PROGRAMMES IN NIGERIA

A. Candidates must possess a basic medical degree or qualification registrable by the Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria.
B. Candidates must have completed a one year rotatory internship training in the departments of Surgery, Paediatrics, Internal Medicine and Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
C. Candidates must have completed one year of national service or have an exemption.
D. Candidates must be fully registered with the Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria and have a recent practicing license.
E. Candidates must have passed the Primaries and the Part 1 final examination in the Faculty of Surgery of either the National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria or the West African College of Surgeons.

ROTATIONS
This takes place in centres with accreditation for training in Paediatric Surgery. In a centre with full accreditation, registrars are required to train for three years. They are however encouraged to rotate in other centres for added exposure.
In centres with partial accreditation Senior Registrars are required to train for two years in the unit and then spend one year at a center with full accreditation for training in Paediatric Surgery.
The National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria also requires an additional one month rotation in Plastic Surgery and a one month rotation in a Neonatology Unit.

Paediatric surgery registrars are involved in:
1.Providing critical care to emergent Paediatric Surgical Patients in the Accident and Emergency Unit(casualty), the Emergency Paediatric Unit, the Special Care Baby(Neonatology) Unit and Paediatric wards.
2.The care of Paediatric Surgical Patients pre-operatively and postoperatively on the wards and in the clinic.
3.Assisting in surgeries or being closely supervised while performing surgeries in children.
4.Participate in Journal reviews, Teaching sessions, Demonstrative sessions, Tutorials, Scientific seminars/conferences and other academic activities.

A Paediatric Surgery registrar is expected to keep a daily and up to date record of operative procedures he/she participates in during this period of training using the prescribed log book for paediatric surgery published by the faculty.

The surgeon is also expected to write a proposal for a prospective clinical study on a topic of relevance. The study is then completed upon approval by the college.
During this period, the registrar is encouraged to attend the intergrated revision course in surgery regularly organized by the two colleges, a management course and a manuscript writing course.

SYLLABUS
The candidate is expected to acquire detailed theoretical knowledge and skill in the embryology and embryogenesis, teratology, pathology, pathophysiology, evaluation and management (including operative surgery) in the following areas and aspects of paediatric surgery:

General Principles

  • Surgical embryology and teratology
  • Principles of prenatal diagnosis and fetal therapy
  • Physiology of the neonatal and paediatric surgical patient
  • Fluids and electrolytes
  • Nutritional support
  • Infection and immunity
  • Haematological problems and their management
  • Paediatric anaesthesia
  • Trauma and resuscitation
  • Malignancy and Chemotherapy

Neonatal Surgery

  • Evaluation and handling of the surgically ill neonate
  • Airway obstruction
  • Intestinal obstruction
  • Stoma formation and care
  • Abdominal wall defects
  • Neural tube defects
  • Neonatal tumors

Head and Neck

  • Thyroglossal duct remnants
  • Thyroid problems
  • Cystic swellings (hygromas, branchial cysts, etc)
  • Cleft lip and palate

Thoracic Surgery

  • Surgical aspects of congenital heart disease
  • Tracheostomy
  • Foreign bodies in the aerodigestive tract
  • Chest infection and its complications
  • Pleural collections
  • Chest wall deformities
  • Oesophageal surgery (Atresia and TOF, caustic and corrosive injuries, replacement and reconstruction)

Gastrointestinal Surgery

  • Intestinal obstruction
  • Stoma formation and care
  • Intestinal malrotation
  • Intestinal duplication
  • Vitelline duct anomalies
  • Pyloric stenosis
  • Gastro-oesophageal reflux
  • Anorectal anomalies
  • Hirchsprungs disease
  • Appendicular diseases
  • Splenic diseases
  • Hepatobiliary surgery
  • Biliary atresia
  • Choledochal cyst
  • Pancreatic problems (Cysts/pseudocysts)

Paediatric Urology

  • Bladder extrophy/epispadias
  • Hypospadias
  • Vesico-ureteric reflux
  • Bladder outlet obstruction
  • Urinary stones
  • Urinary diversion/undiversion
  • Ambiguous genitalia
  • Endoscopy
  • Renal tumors

Paediatric Neurosurgery

  • Neural tube defects (Spina bifida, Hydrocephalus, Encephalocoeles)
  • Pharmakamatosis (Von Recklinghausen’s disease, Sturge Weber, Von Hippel Lindau, Tuberosclerosis, others)
  • Head and spinal surgery

Transplant Surgery

  • Renal
  • Liver
  • Intestinal

Childhood Tumors
Management of various childhood tumors (nephroblastoma, neuroblastoma, teratoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, hepatoblastoma, lymphoma, etc)